2010年10月11日 星期一

SN 1.1.2--《法句經》413 頌

360
 (南傳相應部S1.1.2,解脫nimokkha)摘錄自長老菩提比丘(Bhikkhu Bodhi “The Connected Discourses of the Buddha”, Wisdom Publication.)
At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, a certain devata of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta’s Grove, approached the Blessed One.
在舍衛城。爾時夜晚已過,有一天子容色殊妙,身光遍照整個祇園,來詣世尊處。
Having approached, he paid homage to the Blessed One, stood to one side, and said to him:”Do you know, dear sir, emancipation, release, seclusion for beings[註一]?”
已到世尊處,敬禮世尊,立於一面,彼天子向世尊說:「友,你是否知道眾生之解脫道、解脫果與究竟涅槃?」
“I know, friend, emancipation, release, seclusion for beings.”
“But in what way, dear sir, do you know emancipation, release, seclusion for beings?”
世尊回答:「朋友,我知道眾生之解脫道、解脫果與究竟涅槃。」
彼天子向世尊說:「友,你是否知道如何是眾生之解脫道、解脫果與究竟涅槃?」
世尊回答:「朋友,我知道眾生之解脫道、解脫果與究竟涅槃。」
彼天子向世尊說:「友,如何是你所知道的眾生之解脫道、解脫果與究竟涅槃?」
“By the utter destruction of delight in existence, [註二]
By the extinction of perception and consciousness,
By the cessation and appeasement of feelings;
It is thus, friend, that I know for beings---
Emancipation, release, seclusion.[註三]
對『根本於喜樂的三有』完全滅盡,
對『想』與『識』(之喜樂)亦止息,
經由斷絕與平息對『受』(之喜樂)
朋友,我如是知道眾生的解脫道、解脫果與究竟涅槃。 [註四]

[註一]菩提比丘引『覺音論師註』:『nomokkha是自煩惱、染汙之繫著、繫縛解脫之道路,pamokkha為解脫之果,viveka為涅槃。』或者菩提比丘建議此三字均譯為『涅槃』。菩提比丘比較建議後者
此句在『雜阿含1268經』對應的翻譯為[解脫、廣解脫、極廣解脫],在『別譯雜阿含179經』對應的翻譯為[解脫、盡解脫、淨解脫]。
[註二]菩提比丘引『覺音論師註』:『nandibhavaparikkhaya ti nandimulakassa kammabhavassa parikkhayena ; nandiya ca bhavassa ca ti pi vattati”』,巴利文nandibhavaparikkhaya為具格,nandi為喜樂,bhava有,parikkhaya為捨斷、斷絕( [pari遍] + [khaya滅盡] : m. 遍滅盡)為[經由斷絕對三有的喜樂]。nandimulakassa為具格,nandi為喜樂,mula為根本,kammabhavassa為具格,kamma為業(kāma, 第一個a為長母音,欲貪,欲)bhava為有(三有是欲有、色有、無色有),此字為[經由三有的造業]。parikkhayena為具格,此字為[經由斷絕]。ti為【引號】,指上述的字句。ca為[和and],中文為[甲和乙],英文為A and B,巴利文為A ca B ca pi為[也:also, too],vattati為適合(產生),也適合如此捨斷。
『覺音論師註』:by the utter destruction of kamma-process existence rooted in delight; it is also proper to understand it as meaning “(the destruction) of delight and of existence”. 經由對[根本於喜樂的、造業的三有』的徹底斷絕﹔也可理解為對[喜樂]和[有]的斷絕。
菩提比丘引『覺音論師[法句經註]』:『nandibhavaparikkhinamtisu bhavesu parikkhinatanham』,菩提比丘譯為『one who has destroyed craving for three realms of existence. 『斷絕喜樂和有的人』為『斷絕對三有的愛取、欲貪的人』。
[註三]菩提比丘引『覺音論師註』:nandibhava為『根植於喜樂的三有』指『三種造業活動(tividhakammabhisankhara(S 12.51))』。
菩提比丘引『覺音論師註』:[『喜樂』意指『行蘊』,『有三有』意指『色蘊』,第二句提及『想蘊』與『識蘊』,第三句提及『受蘊』﹔當四蘊的造業過程不再發生即是『有餘依涅槃sa-upadisesa-nibbana』。根植於喜樂的三有』指『三種造業活動(tividhakammabhisankhara(S 12.51)
[註四]本偈誦的巴利文:
Nandībhavaparikkhayā Saññāviṇṇāṇasakhayā,
vedanāna nirodhā upasamā,
eva khvāha, āvuso, jānāmi sattāna
nimokkha pamokkha vivekan.
Nandībhavaparikkhayā (經由斷絕『有』與『喜樂』,具格)Saññāviṇṇāṇasakhayā (經由斷絕『想』與『識』,具格)
vedanāna (,受格)nirodhā (經由斷絕,具格)upasamā, (經由寂滅,具格)eva (如此)khvāha (kho aham的連音sandhi,我確實,主格)āvuso (朋友,呼格)jānāmi (知道,第一人稱單數動詞)sattāna (為眾生,為格)nomokkha (解脫道,受格)pamokkha (解脫果,受格)vivekan (涅槃,受格).
依字面翻譯為:[經由斷絕『有』與『喜樂』
經由斷絕『想』與『識』
經由斷絕、經由寂滅『受』
如此,朋友,我確實知道,
此為眾生的解脫道解脫果與涅槃
菩提比丘註:此偈頌的後二句不合於詩韻。坤案:『雜阿含1268經』中,佛告天子:〔愛喜滅盡,我心解脫﹔心解脫已,故知一切眾生所著、所集,決定解脫、廣解脫、極廣解脫。〕前三句為偈頌,後兩句改用長行的文體(散文)翻譯,可能是此原因。但是如同『雜阿含1267經,Ogha 流』,如果把〔久見婆羅門,逮得般涅槃﹔一切怖已過,永超世恩愛。〕當成各經共有的框架,『雜阿含1268經』就成為[有偈品]中沒有附帶偈頌的經文,就顯得與『結集』的宗旨不符。
如果依照巴利文的編輯,[愛喜滅盡,我心解脫˙˙等等]是一首偈頌,而沒有比較『不相關的』框架,似乎比較合理。
==============漢譯對應經典==============
《雜阿含1268經》卷48:「如是我聞:
一時,佛住舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園。時,有一天子,容色絕妙,於後夜時來詣佛所,稽首佛足,退坐一面。其身光明遍照祇樹給孤獨園。
時,彼天子白佛言:「比丘知一切眾生所著、所集,決定解脫、廣解脫、極廣解脫耶?」
佛告天子:「我悉知一切眾生所著、所集,決定解脫、廣解脫、極廣解脫。」天子白佛:「比丘云何知一切眾生所著、所集,決定解脫、廣解脫、極廣解脫?」
佛告天子:「愛喜滅盡,我心解脫;心解脫已,故知一切眾生所著、所集,決定解脫、廣解脫、極廣解脫。」
時,彼天子復說偈言:
「久見婆羅門, 逮得般涅槃,
一切怖已過, 永超世恩愛。」
時,彼天子聞佛所說,歡喜隨喜,稽首佛足,即沒不現。」(CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 348, b23-c8)

《別譯雜阿含179經》卷9:「如是我聞:
一時,佛在舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園。時有一天,光色倍常,赫然大明,遍于祇洹,來詣佛所,頂禮足已,在一面坐。問言:「瞿曇!汝今能知一切眾生所著所縛,及知一切眾生得解脫者,并淨解脫不?」
爾時,世尊即告天曰:「我實盡知一切之所縛著,及得解脫、盡解[8]脫、淨解脫者。」
天復問言:「瞿曇!云何能知一切眾生之所縛著得解脫、盡解脫、淨解脫耶?」
佛復告言:「我盡觀見有,汝天當知,今我之心得善解脫,得解脫故,能知眾生之所縛著,得解脫、盡解脫、淨解脫,亦悉知之。」
天即讚言:「善哉!善哉!瞿曇!知縛著,乃至能知得淨解脫。」
天復以偈讚言:
「往昔已曾見, 婆羅門涅槃,
嫌怖久棄捨, 能度世間愛。」
爾時,此天說此偈已,歡喜還宮。」(CBETA, T02, no. 100, p. 438, b25-c11)

=======《法句經》413 頌=======
《法句經》413 頌 (與《經集》637 頌相同)
Candaṃ va vimalaṃ suddhaṃ,
vipassannam anāvilaṃ,
nandībhavaparikhīṇaṃ,
tam ahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.
Who is like a moon, spotless, clean, bright and undisturbed,
who has destroyed the existence of pleasure - him do I call a Brahmin.

清淨、無瑕、明朗、無染污如滿月,
他已斷除基於「喜樂」的三有,
這樣的人我稱他為婆羅門。
A. 支謙譯《法句經》卷2〈35 梵志品〉:
「心喜無垢,如月盛滿,謗毀已除,是謂梵志。」
(CBETA, T04, no. 210, p. 573, a6-7)

B. 了參法師譯 譯自巴利文。
如月淨無瑕,澄靜而清明,滅於再生欲,是謂婆羅門。
C. Thera Narada 英譯,錫蘭那羅陀長老英譯自巴利文
He who is spotless as the moon, who is pure, serene, and still, who has destroyed craving for becoming, him I called a brāhmaṇa.
D. 淨海法師譯
如月無雲翳,清淨、明朗,滅盡再生欲者,是為婆羅門。
E. 《出曜經》卷30〈34 梵志品〉:「
『心喜無垢,如月盛滿,謗毀已除,是謂梵志。』
猶如月盛滿,清淨無瑕穢,無有五翳,眾星圍遶,放大光明,靡所不照。彼比丘清淨行人,永除五翳無復五結,心得解脫諸覺道品,眾定正受而自圍遶,於中獨尊無有眾瑕,捨世八法毀譽已除,能具此行者故名為梵志。是故說曰:『心喜無垢,如月盛滿,謗毀已除,是謂梵志』。
『如月清明,懸處虛空,不染於欲,是謂梵志。』
如秋時月,不為五事所翳,清淨無瑕,放大光明,靡所不照,修行比丘亦復如是,不為婬怒癡五結所翳,能具此行者故名為梵志。是故說曰:『如月清明,懸處虛空,不染於欲,是謂梵志』。」(CBETA, T04, no. 212, p. 771, c11-25)

(以下為採自《經集》637頌)
F. 達和法師譯
猶如無雲之月,清淨明亮無濁,滅盡喜悅生活,我說彼是婆羅門。
G. 郭良鋆《經集》
月亮一樣清澈、明淨,純潔無瑕,滅寂喜悅之情,我稱這樣的人為婆羅門。
H. 元亨寺版《小部尼柯耶》《經集》雲庵譯
清淨猶如無雲月,明澄清淨無混濁,普皆喜有滅盡者,我稱彼婆羅門
=====================
Sentence Structure:
candaṃ   va    vimalaṃ  suddhaṃ  vippasannaṃ    anāvilaṃ
|              |          |             |                 |               |
N.m.     part.  Adj.m.   Adj.m.       Adj.m.       Adj.m.
Acc.Sg.    |    Acc.Sg.   Acc.Sg.     Acc.Sg.      Acc.Sg.
|              |          |_______|__________|________|
|________|_________|
       |____|
           |_________________________________________________
nandī+bhava+parikkhīṇaṃ      tam      ahaṃ        brūmi   brahmaṇaṃ
|              |               |             |              |              |             |
N.f.      N.m.      Adj.m.   Pron.m.     Pron.    V.act.in.    N.m.
|________|         Acc.Sg.   Acc.Sg.   Nom.Sg. 1.Sg.pres. Acc.Sg.
        |____________|             |              |              |              |
___________|                       |               |              |              |
          |__________________|               |              |              |
                             |________________|________|________|
                                                          |               |____|
                                                          |__________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:
candaṃ: canda-, N.m.: moon. Acc.Sg. = candaṃ.
va, part.: as, like.
vimalaṃ: vimala-, Adj.: clean, without stains, spotless. It is the word mala-, N.n.: impurity, stain, dirt, with the prefix vi- (without). Acc.Sg.m. = vimalaṃ.
suddhaṃ: suddha-, Adj.: clean, pure. It is a p.p. of the verb root sudh- (to clean).
Acc.Sg.m. = suddha.
vippasannam: vippasanna-, Adj.: purified, clear, bright. It is a p.p. of the verb vippasidati (to become bright). The verb root is sid- (to sit). Acc.Sg.m. = vippasannam.
anāvilaṃ: anāvila-, Adj.: undisturbed, clean. It is the word avila-, Adj.: stirred up, dirty with the negative prefix an-. Acc.Sg.m. = anāvilaṃ.
nandībhavaparikkhīṇaṃ: nandībhavaparikkhīṇa-, Adj.: by whom the existence of pleasure has been completely destroyed. It is a compound of:
nandi-, N.f.: pleasure, delight. It is derived from the verb root nand- (to rejoice, to be glad).
bhava-, N.m.: becoming, existence. It is derived from the verb root bhu- (to be).
parikkhīna-, Adj.: completely removed, destroyed. It is a p.p. of the verb root khi- (to remove, to destroy) with the prefix pari- (all around, completely).
Acc.Sg.m. = nandībhavaparikkhīṇaṃ.
tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).
ahaṃ, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaṃ.
brūmi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is bru-. 1.Sg.act.in.pres. = brūmi.
brahmaṇaṃ: brahmana-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brahmaṇaṃ.
    The subject of this sentence is the pronoun ahaṃ (I, nominative singular). The verb is brumi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brahmaṇaṃ (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has three attributes, the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular), the compound nandībhavaparikkhīṇaṃ (who has destroyed the existence of pleasure, accusative singular) and the noun candaṃ (moon, accusative singular). This last word has four attributes, the adjectives vimalaṃ (spotless, accusative singular), suddhaṃ (clean, accusative singular), vippasannam (bright, accusative singular) and anāvilaṃ (undisturbed, accusative singular). The word is also modified by the particle va (as, like).



Commentary:
    There lived a Brahmin in Savatthi called Candabha. In one of his previous lives he made offerings to the stupa of the Buddha Kassapa. Because of this, a circle of light resembling the moon was radiating from his navel. Therefore he was called Candabha (moonlight). Some Brahmins took advantage of this and allowed people to touch Candabha for money.
    Once they passed the Jetavana monastery and laughed at some disciples of the Buddha who were on the way to hear the Dharma. Then they took Candabha inside to compete with the Buddha. When Candabha was in the presence of the Buddha, his ring of light went out. Candabha then asked the Buddha to teach him how to make such marks appear and disappear. The Buddha told him to join the Order.
    So Candabha became a monk and very soon he attained Arahantship and told his followers to go away, since he would no longer go with them around showing his navel. The Buddha then confirmed his attainment with this verse.
=====引文分隔線======
以下引自 Devasanti 的部落格《經與註》:
http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/devasanti-santi/article?mid=2934&prev=2935&next=2932&l=f&fid=15
[釋文]
candaṃ 'va vimalaṃ suddhaṃ vippasannam anāvilaṃ
nandībhavaparikkhīṇaṃ tam ahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.
如月淨無瑕,澄靜而清明,滅於再生欲,是謂婆羅門。
1.法句經:心喜無垢,如月盛滿,謗毀已除,是謂梵志。T4,573a
2.出曜經:心喜無垢,如月盛滿,謗毀已除,是謂梵志。1T4,771c
3.法集要頌經:心喜無塵垢,如月盛圓滿,謗毀以盡除,是名為梵志。T4,798c
4.udana33.31c:cf.udana33. 41
candro vā vimalaḥ śuddho viprasanno hy anāvilaḥ
nandībhavaparikṣīṇaṃ bravīmi brāhmaṇaṃ hi tam.
=====評論各本譯文======
《法句經》413 頌 與《經集》637 頌相同,譯文也多采多姿。
《雜阿含1268經》
「愛喜滅盡」(CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 348, c2),缺少與「有 bhava」對應的譯文。
《別譯雜阿含179經》
「我盡觀見有」(CBETA, T02, no. 100, p. 438, c4)
此處「日本正倉院《聖語藏》本」作:「我盡觀喜有」。
這個「喜」字應有所本,而不是什麼訛誤。
(附帶說明,「日本正倉院《聖語藏》本」經常保有非常珍貴罕見的「寫本」原文,但是也經常在不該訛誤之處初現明顯的訛誤。)
支謙譯的:「心喜無垢,如月盛滿,謗毀已除,是謂梵志。」
「謗毀已除」應是誤譯,懷疑《出曜經》卷30〈34 梵志品〉:「如月清明,懸處虛空,不染於欲,是謂梵志。」也是支謙的譯文,同樣地,未將「已斷除基於『喜樂』的三有」譯出。
了參法師譯文「如月淨無瑕,澄靜而清明,滅於再生欲,是謂婆羅門」,與Thera Narada 英譯、淨海法師譯一樣,「喜nandi 」未譯出。
達和法師譯文「猶如無雲之月,清淨明亮無濁,滅盡喜悅生活,我說彼是婆羅門」。「滅盡喜悅生活」並未成功譯出原意。
郭良鋆《經集》譯文「滅寂喜悅之情」,巴例偈頌原文,所滅的並非「喜悅之情」,我稱這樣的翻譯為失敗
元亨寺版《小部尼柯耶》《經集》雲庵譯文「普皆喜有滅盡者」,應改作「喜有普皆滅盡者」,但是即使如此,譯文仍然不夠清晰,這就是我主張不要把譯文生硬地湊成七個字的原因
最後我們看 Norman (The Group Discourses II)的譯文:
Stainless like the moon, purified, clear, not turbid,
bereft of joy and existence, him I call a brahman.
譯文是把「基於喜愛的三有」譯為另一個可能的讀法「喜愛與三有」。

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