2011年6月12日 星期日

法句經---391

13

《法句經》卷2〈35 梵志品〉:

「身、口與意,淨無過失,能攝三行,是謂梵志。」(CBETA, T04, no. 210, p. 572, c6-7)

《出曜經》卷29〈34 梵志品〉:

「身口與意,淨無過失,能攝三行,是謂梵志。
出言柔和初無罵詈,分別義趣如掌觀珠,音響清淨聽者樂受,多所成就,淨無過失不觸嬈人,是故說曰,身口與意,淨無過失,能攝三行,是謂梵志。」(CBETA, T04, no. 212, p. 770, b23-28)

yassa kāyena vācāya manasā natthi dukkaṭaṃ

saṃvutaṃ tīhi ṭhānehi tam ahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ.

(DhP 391)



Sentence Translation:

Who does not perform any evil deeds by body, speech or mind,
who is restrained in three ways - him do I call a Brahmin.

不以身、語、意造作惡業,

能以此三者調御者,我說他是婆羅門。

(了參法師譯)「不以身語意,行作諸惡業;制此三處者,是謂婆羅門。」



Sentence Structure:
 

yassa           kāyena    vācāya   manasā  na     atthi      dukkaṭaṃ
|                       |           |           |        |          |              |
Rel.Pron.m.   N.m.    N.f.     N.n.   neg.  V.act.in.     N.n.
Gen.Sg.        Ins.Sg. Ins.Sg. Ins.Sg.    |   3.Sg.pres.  Nom.Sg.
|                       |______|______|         |_____|               |
|                                        |___________|___________|
|                                                 |______|
|_______________________________|
                          |________________________________________________

 

saṃvutaṃ   tīhi      ṭhānehi  tam       ahaṃ       brūmi   brāhmaṇaṃ
|                  |           |         |             |               |             |
Adj.m.    Num.n.  N.n.  Pron.m.   Pron.     V.act.in.    N.m.
Acc.Sg.    Ins.Pl. Ins.Pl. Acc.Sg. Nom.Sg.  1.Sg.pres. Acc.Sg.
|                  |______|         |             |               |              |
|_____________|               |             |               |              |
            |_______________|             |               |              |
                          |_______________|________|________|
                                                      |      |____|
                                                      |______|
_________________________________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:
 

yassa: yat-, Rel.Pron.: that, which. Gen.Sg.m. = yassa (whose).

kāyena: kāya-, N.m.: body. Ins.Sg. = kāyena.

vācāya: vācā-, N.f.: speech, voice. Ins.Sg. = vācāya.

manasā: manas-, N.n.: mind. Inst.Sg. = manasā.

na, neg.: not.

atthi, V.: is. The verb root is as- (to be). 3.Sg.act.in.pres. = atthi.
Euphonic combination: na + atthi = natthi.

dukkaṭaṃ: dukkaṭa-, N.n.: bad deed, evil deed. It is the word kaṭa-, Adj. (done, it is a p.p. of the verb kar-, to do) with the prefix du- (bad, wrong). Nom.Sg. = dukkaṭaṃ.

saṃvutaṃ: saṃvuta-, Adj.: restrained, governed, guarded. It is a p.p. of the verb var- (to obstruct) with the prefix saṃ- (together, completely). Acc.Sg.m. = saṃvutaṃ.

tīhi: tī-, Num.: three. Ins.Pl. = tīhi.

ṭhānehi.: ṭhāna-, N.n.: place, condition, state. It is derived from the verb root ṭha- (to stay, to stand). Ins.Pl. = ṭhānehi.

tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).

ahaṃ, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaṃ.

brūmi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is brū-. 1.Sg.act.in.pres. = brūmi.

brāhmaṇaṃ: brāhmaṇa-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brāhmaṇaṃ

    This verse consists of two syntactically related sentences. They are:
    1) yassa kāyena vācāya manasā natthi dukkaṭaṃ (who does not perform any evil deeds by body, speech or mind). The subject is the noun dukkaṭaṃ (evil deed, nominative singular). It has three attributes, the nouns kāyena (by body, instrumental singular), vācāya (by speech, instrumental singular) and manasā (by mind, instrumental singular). The verb is atthi (is, 3rd person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). It is negated by the negative particle na (not). The relative pronoun yassa (whose, genitive singular) connects this sentence to the following one.
    2) saṃvutaṃ tīhi ṭhānehi tam ahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ (who is restrained in three ways - him do I call a Brahmin). The subject is the pronoun ahaṃ (I, nominative singular). The verb is brūmi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brāhmaṇaṃ (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has two attributes, the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular) and the past participle saṃvutaṃ (restrained). This word has its own attribute, the noun ṭhānehi (by things, instrumental plural) with its attribute, the numeral tīhi (by three, instrumental plural).

===============================

Uttarajjhaya 第25經頗有意思,內容大致是:

曾經是婆羅門修行者的Jayaghoṣa 在結束他節食的修行之後開始行乞,結果遇上一戶人家正在供養舉行祭儀的婆羅門,而在家者一見到 Jayaghoṣa 走近,直接跟 Jayaghoṣa 說不會供養他,理由是因為婆羅門祭司比他還值得被供養。Jayaghoṣa 雖然被驅趕,但他還是決定留下來教導他們什麼才是真正的婆羅門──

免除愛、恨、恐懼,如同拋光的金子,在火中被純淨,

這樣的人我們稱他作真正的婆羅門;

他完全知曉一切生類,那些到處移動的,或不會移動的,並且不去傷害他們,

這樣的人我們稱他作真正的婆羅門;

他不拿取任何不是給予他的物品,不論大或小,

這樣的人我們稱他作真正的婆羅門;

他不為欲樂所污染,如同蓮花出自水中卻不被浸沒,

這樣的人我們稱他作真正的婆羅門。

Jaini 在引述的第二個偈子「並且不去傷害他們」中,沒翻出 tiviheṇa,依據 Jacobi 的註釋,此處是指身、語、意三個層面都不傷害。

記得在《法句經》婆羅門品中,也是在討論這類「真正的婆羅門」議題,

《經集》也有不少相應之處,而Jaini在介紹至此後的小結中指出:

將「婆羅門」一詞以耆那教修行者的誓言來重新定義,這是耆那教發展的一個里程碑;決定一個人或是一個團體的優越或是低下,取決於行為(cāritra)而非出身(jāti),也因此大雄雖然出身剎帝利種性,卻常被稱作 māhaṅa(俗語的婆羅門)。

黃柏棋老師在他討論耆那教四法的文章中提及,世尊先採諷刺性描述來陳列耆那教四法,之後再以佛教中道義來將這四法轉型為普世的道德教導,所教導的其實也不出「不殺、不盜、不妄、不淫」;在 Uttarajjhaya 第25經中,Jayaghoṣa 同樣是將婆羅門教的思想意涵重新以普世性的道德教導來詮釋,兩者之路徑是相同的,而《經集》462偈中的「不問出身,只問行為(Mā jātiṃ pucchi caraṇañca puccha)」也與Jaini的結語不謀而合(或許Jaini也是參考《經集》而得的感想),因此初期佛教與初期耆那教教團,對於理想中的婆羅門,應該是有極為相近的定義才是。

由此再回頭看佛典中指陳的耆那教四法,如果初期佛/耆雙方對於理想中的婆羅門觀是相近的,所提出的普世道德教導也不分軒轅,則何以世尊會先提出個初期耆那教經典所沒有的四法概念來諷刺耆那教,進而提出他所認可的四法,而世尊所認可的這些其實耆那教本來也就不否認?我以為關則富老師在他文章中提出的「invention」說似乎是個比較可以解釋這落差的論述吧。

Regards,

ben

-------------------------------------------------------------

Dear GuoBin,

  有關《經集》的偈頌,以後再找,此兩偈頌先讓你參考。

《法句經》卷2〈35 梵志品〉:

「身、口與意,淨無過失,能攝三行,是謂梵志。」(CBETA, T04, no. 210, p. 572, c6-7)

他完全知曉一切生類,那些到處移動的,或不會移動的,並且(於身、語、意)不去傷害他們,

這樣的人我們稱他作真正的婆羅門;

《法句經》卷2〈34 沙門品〉:

「棄慢無餘驕,蓮華水生淨,學能捨彼此,知是勝於故。」(CBETA, T04, no. 210, p. 572, b4-5)(巴利《法句經》無此偈頌。)

他不為欲樂所污染,如同蓮花出自水中卻不被浸沒,

這樣的人我們稱他作真正的婆羅門。

2 則留言:

GuoBing 提到...

學長好,

在渡辺研二先生的論文中剛好有比對到蓮華譬喻的部份, 他引了法句經的偈子來與耆那教Utt. XXVI.27(渡辺研二論文作Utt. XXVI.25應為誤植)比對:

Vāri pokkharapatteva,
āraggeriva sāsapo;
Yo na limpati kāmesu,
tam ahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ. (Dhp. 401 / Sn.625)

cf.:
割愛無戀慕,不受如蓮華,比丘渡河流,勝欲明於故。(CBETA, T04, no. 210, p. 572, b6-7)
--
jahā pomaṃ jale jāyaṃ |
novalippai vāriṇā /
evaṃ alittaṃ kāmehiṃ |
taṃ vayaṃ būma māhaṇaṃ || (Utt. XXVI.27)

He who is not defiled by pleasures as a lotus growing in the water is not wetted by it, him we call a Brâhmana. (Utt. XXVI.27; tr. by H. Jacobi)

蓮葉と水滴 : 現存白衣派古聖典と仏教聖典の原伝承 / 渡辺研二
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110007573665

至於我blog中討論bhavaṅga的部份, 查了一堆資料之後已經暈頭轉向了, 且待日後消化過後再回應 ^^

Regards,

ben

藏經閣外的掃葉人 提到...

Dear GuoBing:

漢譯和巴利《法句經》 401 頌期實是有一些差距的,不能說是完全符合的對應偈頌。

如同水滴在蓮葉上,

如同芥子落在箭尖上,

不會在欲樂上繫縛的人,

我稱他為婆羅門。

《法句經》卷2〈34 沙門品〉:

「割愛無戀慕,  不受如蓮華,
 比丘渡河流,  勝欲明於故。」(CBETA, T04, no. 210, p. 572, b6-7)