2014年7月10日 星期四

佛法值多少錢?--譯自 Shravasti Dhammika 的部落格〈法的沉思〉

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感謝 Shravasti Dhammika 尊者應允我轉載他的部落格貼文,並且翻譯成中文。

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佛法值多少錢?--譯自 Shravasti Dhammika 的部落格〈法的沉思 dhamma musings

佛陀對眾生說法,不收任何費用。他有時因說法而冒著生命危險或承擔諸多困難與不便(巴利《優陀那》78, Ud. 78)。尊者富樓那甘心前往可能受害或受傷的兇暴地區說法(M. III, 269)。現在,有些西方人前往傳統佛教國家去學習佛法與禪修,回到自己的家鄉之後,他們收費來教導自己免費學到的(佛法與禪修)。我真實地認為這樣作是不符道德規範(或戒律)的。同樣地,也有一些亞洲來的出家人以講授佛法(或禪修)收費,特別是來自藏傳佛教的教導者最常違犯此一原則。我有一次跟某位仁波切的一位學生提到,他的老師對他教導的佛法(或禪修)收了相當高的費用,真的很高的費用。他的這位學生相當防衛地辯解說,機票、住宿...等等都得花錢。我說:「何不要求學生自由奉獻、捐款而不是收取費用?」這位弟子說:「如果樂施的捐款不夠用的話怎麼辦?」我不願繼續討論此一議題,這對我來說有一點奇怪,因為這與(所教導的)慈無量心並不一致。我也不禁想起葛因卡(Goenka)及其禪修中心只依賴樂捐運作。

對佛法收費,這樣做會將寶貴殊勝的佛法當作一樣商品,而且佛陀清楚地宣稱:「勿將佛法當作營生。」(別拿佛法作生意)(巴利《優陀那》66, Ud. 66)。當佛陀說:「所有布施之中,法布施最殊勝」(巴利《法句經》354頌),他清楚地教導著「佛法(教導)必須是一樣布施」,而不是販賣品。佛陀在世時,當代人知道其他外道收取費用(acariyadhana),但是,佛教要求的僅是專心致志地聆聽教導,除此之外一無所求(A.V,347)。我想,對禪修期間的食物、住宿等等的收費應該是合理的,禪師因教導而接受「donation 捐獻」也不算是不合適。但是,對收取固定的費用,不管是稱為「sponsorship 贊助」或「donation 捐獻」,都與佛教最基本的理念或 ethics 道德準則相衝突。教導佛法的人應該把這當作當作殊勝的機緣,而出自於慈悲,不能將此當作謀生的方法。

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Saturday, July 5, 2014

Putting A Price On The Dhamma

The Buddha gave the Dhamma freely to all. He often underwent difficulties and inconveniences and on occasions even risked his life, in order to teach the Dhamma to others (Ud.78). The monk Punna was prepared to teach the Dhamma in a district where the people were known for their violence and where he had a good chance of being manhandled or worse (M.III,269). Today, some Westerners go to traditional Buddhist countries to learn Dhamma or meditation, they return to their homelands, and then charge for teaching what they were taught for free. I really think this is unethical. Likewise, some Asian monks put a price on the Dhamma, certain Tibetan teachers being the worst offenders. I once mentioned to the student of a rimpoche that his teacher charged very high prices for his teachings – really high. Rather defensively the student said that air fares, accommodation, etc all cost money. “Why not just ask students for a donation rather than charge them?’ I said. “What if the costs were not covered?” the disciple shot back. I let the subject drop but it seemed a little odd after all the insistence about infinite compassion for all beings. I also couldn’t help thinking that Goenka (and his assistant teachers) rely entirely on donations.

In charging for Dhamma such teachers are turning the precious Dhamma into a commodity and the Buddha clearly said: “One should not go about making a business out of the Dhamma” (Ud.66). When the Buddha said: “The gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts” (Dhp.354) he clearly meant that the Dhamma should be a gift, not something to be sold. During the Buddha’s time people knew that teachers of other religions charged a fee (acariyadhana) but that those teaching Dhamma expected nothing more from their students audience than respect and attentiveness (A.V,347). I think there is nothing wrong with charging for the food, accommodation etc. used during a meditation course. Nor is it improper for a teacher to accept donations. But to charge a fee, even if it is called “sponsorship” or to announce that a “donation” of a certain amount is expected or required, contradicts the most basic ethics and ideals of Buddhism. Those who teach the Dhamma should see what they do as a rare and wonderful privilege and an act of kindness, not a means of livelihood.

Posted by Shravasti Dhammika at 6:11 PM

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版主贅語:

1. 尊者在他的部落格提到:“It used to be ‘Will I be able to attend this Dhamma talk.’ Now it is: ‘Can I afford to attend this Dhamma talk’ ”

以前的問題是「我會參加這次講習嗎?」

現在的問題大多是「我會負擔得起參加這次講習嗎?」

2. 《雜阿含經》中,有先受供養之說。如施者先無供養之心,聞法後才發心供養,則當場並不接受,以避「販賣佛法」的譏嫌。

《雜阿含98經》卷4:「「不因說法故,受彼食而食,但為利益他,說法不受食。」(CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 27, b11)

《雜阿含1184經》卷44:「爾時,孫陀利河側婆羅門轉得信心,即持餘食以奉世尊,世尊不受,以說偈得故,如上因說偈而得食廣說。」(CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 320, c15-17)

3. 我的老師時常教導我,佛法是如此珍貴,對佛法的崇敬之心讓我們不忍販賣佛法或拿它來作交換、貿易,一生的志願只是傳遞佛法。

4. 巴利《法句經》354頌:「所有布施之中,法布施最殊勝;所有滋味之中,法味最殊勝;所有的喜樂之中,法樂最殊勝;滅盡渴愛能征服眾苦。」

《法句經》卷2〈32 愛欲品〉:「眾施經施勝,眾味道味勝,眾樂法樂勝,愛盡勝眾苦。」(CBETA, T04, no. 210, p. 571, b8-9)

《出曜經》卷23〈27 泥洹品〉:「眾施法施勝,眾樂法樂上,眾力忍力最,愛盡苦諦妙。」(CBETA, T04, no. 212, p. 735, c13-14)

《法集要頌經》卷3〈26 圓寂品〉:「眾施法施勝,眾樂法樂上,眾力忍力最,愛盡圓寂樂。」(CBETA, T04, no. 213, p. 791, a29-b1)

5. 《雜阿含311經》卷13:「富樓那白佛言:「世尊!我已蒙世尊略說教誡,我欲於西方輸盧那人間遊行。」」(CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 89, b18-20)
[9]西方輸盧那Sunāparantaka.。[7]「富樓那」或譯作「富留那」。Puṇṇa.。

2 則留言:

Barry 提到...

似乎以下可稍作修改:

- sponsorship贊助
- donation捐獻
- Nor is it improper for a teacher to accept donations. 導師接受捐獻也非不妥當。

Ken Yifertw 提到...

Dear Barry,

Thanks!