Footprints In The Dust (塵土上的足跡) I & II
Shravasti Dhammika, Footprints In The Dust
達爾卡法師 著 伍煥炤 譯 ：
1. The only two of the great religious teachers who were successful during their own lifetimes were the Mohammed and Siddhatta Gotama, the Buddha. Both had long teaching careers and both lived to see their respective religions firmly established. Prof. Basham has written that Buddhism was a minor religion until its adoption and promotion by King Asoka. Basham bases his assumption on the fact that there is no archaeological evidence of Buddhism before Asoka’s time but this seems to me to be a rather weak argument. What physical evidence are wandering ascetics, which are what the Buddha’s disciples were, likely to leave? They established few permanent monasteries and those they did build were made of mud, bamboo and thatch. As for stupas, these did not become an important feature of Buddhist worship until about the 2nd century BCE. The Pali Tipitaka offers ample and convincing evidence that the Buddha was well known throughout wide tracts of northern India and that his Dhamma attracted large numbers of converts from all classes, especially the elite.
1. 只有穆罕默德和佛陀喬達摩．釋達多這兩位偉大的宗教宗師，在他們有生之年是成功的。兩人均有很長的傳教生涯，並看到各自的宗教穩固地建立起來。巴沙姆 (Basham) 教授提到直到阿育王信奉和提倡佛教之前，它只是個小宗教。巴沙姆的假設是基於沒有發掘到阿育王時代前的佛教文物，但對我來說這個論據非常薄弱。作為遊方的修行者，佛陀的弟子能留下甚麼實質的證據？他們建立了少量固定的寺院，而所建的寺院都是使用泥、竹和茅草來建築，佛塔也是在公元前二世紀才成為供奉佛教的主要特徵。巴利文《大藏經》提供了充份和可信的證據，證明佛陀在印度北部大多處地方廣為人識，他的佛法吸引了很多來自各階層，特別是精英階層的信徒。
2. The highly critical attitude of Jains and brahmins towards the new teaching as recorded in the Tipitaka suggests that they saw it as a real threat. An important cause of the Buddha’s success was no doubt his extraordinary personality. Even despite the great distance in time between he and us, the heavy editing of the suttas and their rather stilted language, the Buddha’s warm and compassionate presence shines through on nearly every page. The logical consistency of his Dhamma must have been an important factor also. However, no matter how appealing a teacher or how common-sense a teaching it will not attract converts unless they can come into contact with it. The Buddha was a missionary from the very beginning and this was, together with the two things mentioned above, the most important factor in the early success of his teachings. He had a still heart but a very mobile body.
3. According to the Tipitaka, almost the first thing the Buddha did after his enlightenment was to embark on a long journey in order to teach others what he had discovered. Equally significantly, his instructions to his first five disciples was that they should ‘wander forth’ to teach others what he had taught them.
4. The area in which the Buddha wandered during his life corresponds roughly to the modern Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The furthermost east he went which can still be identified is Kajangla (now Kankjol, 18 km south of Rajmahal right on the Indo-Bangladesh border) and the furthermost west he is known to have gone is Mathura, some 180 kilometres south of Delhi. These two locations are nearly a thousand kilometers apart. The Buddha’s movements northwards were of course limited by the then impenetrable jungles of the Himalayan foothills and it is unlikely that he ever went further south than the southern edge of the Ganges watershed. Still, this would mean that his wanderings covered an area roughly equivalent to 200,000 square kilometers, a huge area by any standards.
4. 佛陀在有生之年遊方的地方大約相當於現今印度的北方邦 (Uttar Pradesh) 和比哈爾邦 (Bihar)。最東他所到而仍可辨認的地方是羯朱嗢祇羅國 (Kajangla) (現今坎喀爾Kankjol，南距拉馬霍爾 Rajmahal 十八公里，位於印度和孟加拉邊境)。最西他曾去到馬圖拉 (Mathura, 秣菟羅)，約德里 (Delhi) 一百八十公里以南。這兩處地方相距差不多一千公里。佛陀向北的旅程到達喜馬拉雅山腳，被該處茂密的森林阻礙，無法跨過。他也沒有可能到過恆河分水嶺南陲以外的地方。即使如此，這表示他遊方的範圍大約等於二萬平方公里，以任何的標準來說都是一個遼闊的地區。
5. The evidence suggests that the Buddha only occasionally visited the outer edges of this region. For example, he only visited Mathura once and he probably visited Anga in the east (i.e. Campa, Bhaddiya and Kajangla corresponding to modern Bhagalpur District) only once also. Incidentally, I believe that Bhaddiya or Bhaddiyanagara as it is also sometimes called in the Tipitaka, can be safely identified with the village of Bhadariya some 12 kilometers south of Bhagalpur. However, most of the Buddha’s wanderings took place in the eastern part of this area, between the great cities of Savatthi, Rajagaha, Vesali and Kosambi. The Tipitaka mention carriageways in towns and paths, roads and highways through the countryside. However there is little doubt that these names referred to the frequency of traffic on these arteries, not to the quality of their paving or their width. All roads in ancient India were little more than dusty, rutted tracks in the summer and impassable rivers of mud in the rainy season. Banditry added to the risks of long distance travel.
5. 證據顯示佛陀只偶爾到訪這地區的邊陲，例如他只到過馬圖拉 (Mathura, 秣菟羅) 一次，也可能只到過東面的鴦伽 (Anga) 一次 (例如占婆 Campa、跋提 Bhaddiya和羯朱嗢祇羅國Kajangla，相當於現今的巴加爾布林 Bhagalpur District)。順帶一提，我相信跋提或《大藏經》有時稱為跋提城 (Bhaddiyanagara) 的地方，能準確被辨認為巴加爾布林以南十二公里一條稱為跋提的村落。然而，佛陀大多數遊方的地方集中在這地區的東部，在舍衛城 (Savatthi)、王舍城 (Rajagaha)、毘舍離 (Vesali) 和拘舍彌 (Kosambi) 這些大城市之間。《大藏經》提到城鎮中的車道，以及市郊佈滿小路和大道。但毋庸置疑，這些名稱所指是道路車輛的流量，而不是它們鋪砌的質素或寬度。所有古印度的道路大多是塵土飛揚，夏天時崎嶇不平，雨季時佈滿令人舉步難行的泥濘，盜賊則增加長途旅途的危險。
6. Travellers on the road between Savatthi and Sakheta were often robbed (Vin, IV: 87) and of course the fearsome Angulimala was a robber and murderer who operated in forested areas around Savatthi. Once the Buddha and an attendant were on tour of Kosala when they came to a fork in the road. The Buddha said they should take one fork while the attendant said they should take the other. This debate continued for some time until in a huff the attendant put the Buddha’s bowl down and walked off on the way he thought correct. He hadn’t gone far before he was attacked by bandits who ‘struck him with their fists and feet and tore his robe’ (Ud, 90). In the more remote districts travellers might have difficulty finding food, water and shelter. The Tipitaka mentions a traveller getting down on all fours to drink from a puddle in a cow’s footprint because no other water was available and of two parents lost in the wilderness who saved themselves from starvation by killing and eating their child. More normally thought travel was just uncomfortable, tedious and undertaken only when necessary. And yet it seems that the Buddha spent most of his time on the road in order to reach as many people as possible. Such was his determination and compassion.
6. 往來舍衛城 (Savatthi) 和沙計多 (Saketa, 娑雞帝) 的旅人常被盜賊搶劫 (Vin. IV: 87)，央掘摩羅 (Angulimala) 這名令人生畏的盜賊和殺手就是在舍衛城附近的森林出沒。有一次，佛陀與一名侍者前往憍薩羅國 (Kosala)，當他們到到達一岔路時，佛陀說應走這一邊，而侍者則說走另一邊。這討論持續了一會，侍者在一怒之下放低佛陀的缽，朝他認為正確的道路走去。他走到不遠就被盜賊襲擊，他們對他「拳打腳踢，並撕破他的僧袍」(Ud. 90)。在一些較為偏僻的地區，旅人可能在找食物、食水和住宿遇上困難。《大藏經》提到一名旅人因為找不到水源，結果要趴在地上，在牛腳印下的水坑喝水。又有一對父母在荒野迷路，他們靠殺死和吃掉自己孩子來充饑才得以保存性命。大多數人認為旅途勞頓和乏味的，只有在必要時才展開。然而，佛陀好像把大多時間用於旅途上，以接觸更多的人。這就是他的毅力和慈祥。
7. In keeping with the rules laid down by himself and in accordance with long established samana tradition, the Buddha spent three months of the rainy season in one location and the rest of the year on what were called ‘walking tours’. According to the commentarial tradition after the 20th year of his ministry he spent every rainy season in or near Savatthi, the capital of Kosala. The fact that more of his discourses are set in this city that in any other place suggests that there is some foundation in this tradition and if it is true he may have decided to limit his wanderings at that time due to age. He would have been sixty years old at the time. All the Buddha’s journeys were undertaken on foot although as there are numerous rivers in the land he knew he must have often had to use boats or ferries despite being no specific mention of him ever actually doing this.
7. 為遵循自己制定的戒律和沙門的一貫傳統，佛陀會在一處地方度過雨季，其他的時間則展開我們所指的「徒步旅程」。根據註釋，在弘法二十年後，他每個雨季都留在憍薩羅國 (Kosala) 的首都舍衛城 (Savatthi) 或附近的地方。佛陀在這城市弘法較任何其他地方多，這顯示了這傳統有一定的根據。又若這是事實的話，他可能由於當時年齡的關係而決定減少遊方，因他當時己經有六十歲。所有佛陀的旅程都是步行的，然而他亦常乘船或擺渡橫過陸上無數的河流，儘管這沒有特別的記錄。
8. We read of monks once crossing a river by holding on to the tails and backs of a herd of cattle that was swimming across the same river suggesting that when there was neither bridges, boats or rafts that the Buddha might have had to improvise as these monks did. There is no mention of the Buddha travelling by carriage or cart. In only one place is he described as wearing sandals, so he probably went bare footed most of the time (Vin,IV:186).
8. 我們讀到有一次比丘們過河的情景，他們抓緊同在過河牛隻的尾巴和背，顯示當沒有橋、船或筏的時候，佛陀也可能像這些比丘般隨機應變。佛經沒有提到他在旅途中乘客運車或運貨車，只有一處地方描述他穿着涼鞋，因此他大多時間都應是赤腳步行(Vin. IV: 186)。
9. The Tipitaka mentions the itinerary of many of the Buddha’s journeys giving us an idea of the distances he sometimes travelled. For example, we know that within the first twelve months after his enlightenment he went from Uruvela to Isipatthana via Gaya and Benares, spent the three months of the rainy season there and then travelled to Rajagaha via Benares, Gaya, Uruvela and Lativanna. All these places can be identified with certainly and thus we can calculate that he must have walked at least 300 kilometers. In the longest single journey recorded in the Tipitaka, he went from Rajagaha: to Vesali to Savatthi and back to Rajagaha via Kitigiri and Avali, a round trip of at least 1600 kilometres (Vin, IV,189). It is likely that he would have started a trip like this at the end of the rains retreat and arrived back in time for the next retreat nine months later. Unfortunately, it is not possible to know how much time these or any of the other journeys might have taken.
9. 《大藏經》提到很多佛陀旅程的日誌，讓我們對他有時行走的路程有點概念。例如，我們知道他在覺悟後的一年內，他由優婁頻羅 (Uruvela) 前住仙人住處 (Isipatthana, 鹿野苑)，途經迦耶 (Gaya) 和波羅奈 (Benares)，在仙人住處渡過三個月的雨季，然後經波羅奈、迦耶和優婁頻羅和杖林 (Latthivana) 回到王舍城。這些地方可肯定被確認，因此我們能計算他行走了至少三百公里。《大藏經》記載他最長的旅程是由王舍城到毘舍離 (Vesali) 和舍衛城 (Savatthi)，然後經迦尸黑山 (Kitagiri) 和曠野國 (Alavi) 折返王舍城，來回至少一千六百公里 (Vin. IV: 189)。他可能在結夏安居後展開這樣的旅程，並準時在九個月後的下一次結夏安居返回來。可惜的是我們無法得知這些旅程所需的時間。
10. In the famous Mahaparinibbana Sutta we know that he went from Rajagaha to Kusinara via Nalanda, Patna and Vesali, a total distance of about 300 kilometers. According to the sutta he left Vesali at the end of the rains retreat (October) and of course he is supposed to have attained final nirvana in Kusinara on the full moon of Vesakha (May). This suggests that he took seven months to travel about 95 kilometres. Even allowing for the fact that he was old and in ill health this seems like a very long time. It should be pointed out that only later text in the Tipitaka mention that the Buddha’s parinivana took place at Vesakha and the sutta gives the impression that while his last journey was slow it was at a steady pace. However, it seems likely that the Buddha conducted his journeys at a leisurely pace.
10. 我們從著名的《大般涅槃經》知道他由王舍城出發，經那爛陀村 (Nalanda, 後來的那爛陀寺)、巴特那村 (Patna, 後來的華氏城) 和毘舍離 (Vesali) 到達拘尸那揭羅 (Kusinara, 拘尸那羅)，全程約三百公里。根據他在結夏安居 (十月) 後在毘舍離所說的經文，他應在衛塞節 (五月) 的滿明在拘尸那揭羅入滅。這顯示他在七個月行了約九十五公里。即使考慮到他年紀老邁和病了一段頗長的時間，這也像一段很長的時間。必須強調只有《大藏經》後期的經文提到佛陀在衛塞節涅槃，這給人的印象是即使他最後的旅程緩慢，但步伐仍是穩健的。然而，佛陀很可能是悠閒地展開他的旅程。
11. The evidence suggests that he would wake before sunrise, go for pindapata in the nearest town or village just after sunrise and having eaten, would set off while it was still cool. He would walk until the midday heat became unpleasant and then take an afternoon rest. If there was a village nearby he might stay until the next morning and if not he might continue walking until he got to the next village. How long he stayed at a particular place would have depended on many factors - whether local people came to talk with and listen with him, whether food and water was available, whether the atmosphere was congenial. We know for example that he cut short his first stay in Rajagaha when people began to complain that too many young men were leaving their families to become monks. Once he arrived in the village of Thuna to find that there was no water to drink because the brahmin inhabitants, hearing that he was coming, had blocked up their wells with rice husks and cow dung. The warm and respectful reception that Buddhist monks get today was not always available to the Buddha and his disciples. He is often described as travelling with either 500 monks (a conventional number meaning ‘a lot’) or simply with ‘a large group of monks’. At other times he would dismiss his attendant and companions telling them that he wanted to wander by himself for a while (S.III:94).
11. 證據顯示他在黎明前醒來，剛日出便到最近的城鎮或村落托缽，飯後當天氣仍然涼快時起程，一直行到中午，直到炎熱的天氣使人不適時他便會在下午休息。假如附近有村落他可能逗留到明早，若果沒有的話他可能繼續行程，直到抵達下一條村落。他逗留在一個地方多久取決於很多的因素 — 當地人是否到來聆聽佛法，與自己交談，有沒有食物和食水供應，氣氛是否和睦。例如我們知道他縮短第一次到王舍城 (Rajagaha) 的時間，因為當地人開始投訴太多年青人捨棄家庭出家為僧。(Vin. IV: 43)。有一次他抵達土拿村 (Thuna)，發現沒有飲用的食水，原來當地的婆羅門居民在聽到他到來時，便用稻殼和牛糞把他們的水井封起來 (Ud.78)。現今佛教比丘們受到熱情和恭敬的接待，這是佛陀和他的弟子不常遇到的。佛陀常被形容與五百比丘 (慣常解作「很多」的意思) 或簡單地指與「一大群比丘」遊方。他也有時候會辭退侍者和同伴，告訴他們自己想單獨遊方一會 (S. III: 94)。
12. The Buddha was not, as is commonly supposed, primarily a forest dweller. Of the four monasteries he founded and now identified by archaeologists - Ghositarama, Jivakarama, Jetavana and Veluvana - the first is actually inside the walls of the city while the other three are within easy walking distance of their respective cities. When staying in these places the Buddha’s accommodation would have been reasonably comfortable but when he was on the road the situation was very different and he would have to sleep in or take shelter in whatever was available. We read of him sleeping in a potter’s shed on grass spread on the floor (M.I:502). On another occasion, he arrived in Kapilavatthu and finding no proper lodgings, spent the night in Bharandu’s hermitage sleeping on a mat on the ground (A.I:277). Often he must have simply slept in one of the many mango groves that to this day are still to be seen near most north Indian villages. Finding him out in the open one winter’s night Hattaka asked the Buddha if he was happy. He replied; ‘Yes my lad, I live happily. Of those who live happily in the world I am one’. Hattaka expressed surprise at this, pointing out that it was the dark half of the month, the time of frost, that the ground was trampled hard by the hoofs of the cattle, the carpet of leaves thin, the wind cold and that the Buddha’s robe appeared to be thin. The Buddha reaffirmed that he was nonetheless happy (A.I:136).
12. 與普遍的想法不同，佛陀並不是一個主要以森林為居所的人。現今四所由考古學家確認的寺院 — 瞿師羅園 (Ghositarama)、耆婆園 (Jivakarama)、祇園精舍 (Jetavana) 和竹林精舍 (Veluvana) — 第一所其實位於城內，而其餘三所則離城市步行不遠之處。當逗留在這些地方時，佛陀的起居是頗為舒適的，但當他展開行程時，情況就十分不同，他要四處找尋任何可供留宿的地方。我們知道他住在製陶工人的棚屋，睡在鋪上草的地上 (M. I: 502)。另一次，他到了迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu)，發覺找不到適當的住處，於是在巴哈蘭度的草庵 (Bharandu) 內度宿，睡在地蓆上 (A. I: 277)。很多時他乾脆睡在一個芒果園。時至今日，在大多數印度北部的村落附近仍可找到這些芒果園。哈達卡 (Hattaka) 看到佛陀在冬天時睡在曠野，便問他是否快樂？他回答：「是的年青人，我生活得很快樂。在世上能活得快樂的人之中，我是其中的一位。」哈達卡對此感到驚訝，指出這是黑暗的日子、正值結霜、地面被牛腳踐踏得乾硬、樹葉製的毯子單薄、寒風凜冽，而佛陀只有薄薄的外袍。佛陀重申他仍然感到快樂 (A. I: 136)。
13. The Buddha must have also enjoyed the freedom his life of wandering gave him. For him ‘the household life is full of hindrances, a path of dust. Free as the wind is the life of one who renounces all worldly things’ (D. I:62). However, moving from place to place had very important practical reasons behind it too, in a world without the communications that we take for granted it allowed him to spread his teachings far and wide. He was also aware that some personal contact with him was important, especially for newly ordained monks and nuns, and that this may have been a factor in determining in which districts he visited and how often (S,III:90). During his wanderings he might visit a district, teach, make some disciples, even ordain a few monks or nuns and then perhaps not come again for many years. If a monk from such a district wished to see him again he could simply set off to wherever the Buddha was staying at the time.
13. 佛陀定當享受遊方生活帶來的自由，對他來說「在家生活充滿羈絆，是一條暝曚的道路，捨棄世俗的事物就能如風一般自由」(D. I: 62)。然而，四處遊方的背後有很重要的原因，在缺乏通訊的時代，這能讓他把佛法廣泛地傳播開去。他亦意識到讓人們接觸自己的重要，特別是對於那些剛出家的比丘和比丘尼，這可能是決定了他到哪個地區和次數的因素 (S. III: 90)。在他遊方的時候，他可能到訪一個地方，在當地弘法，接受一些信眾皈依，甚至為一些比丘或比丘尼剃度，然後幾年也不再來。假如這些地方的比丘想再見佛陀，他只要前往佛陀當時所處的地方便可。
14. Sona Kutikanna was ordained by Mahakaccana and about a year later developed the desire to meet the man whose teachings he had committed himself to. He said to his preceptor; ‘I have not yet met the Lord face to face, I have only heard about what he is like. If you give me permission I will travel to see the Lord, the Noble One, the Enlightened Buddha’(Ud,58). For lay disciples with domestic obligations undertaking a long journey to see the Buddha would have been more difficult and so they may have had to wait, perhaps many years, before they got to see him again. The Thapataya Sutta gives us some idea of the excitement caused in an outlying district when its inhabitants heard that the Buddha might be on his way to see him and how the excitement increased as word of his gradual approach reached them (S,V:348-349). Elsewhere we read of people’s anxiousness for news about the Buddha and of what he had been teaching.
14. 二十億耳 (Sona Kutikanna) 是摩訶迦旃延 (Mahakaccana) 剃度的比丘。在出家大約一年後，二十億耳有一個願望，想見到那個他皈依其教義的人。他對戒師說：「我還未能與世尊見面，我只聽過他的容貌，假如你准許的話，我會前往見世尊、聖者、正等正覺者」(Ud. 58)。對擁有家庭責任的在家弟子，要長途跋涉去見佛陀會更加困難，因此他們可能要等很多年才可再與佛陀見面。《塔帕塔雅經》(Thapataya Sutta) 告訴我們，當一處邊陲地區的居民聽到佛陀可能正前往當地，有關他快將到達的消息傳至時，他們的情緒高漲也高漲起來 (S.V: 348-349)。其他地方提到人們着緊有關佛陀的消息，以及他正在講授的佛法。
15. Once a monk who had spent the rainy season with the Buddha in Savatthi arrived in Kapilavatthu. When people heard where the monk had come from he found himself deluged with questions about the Buddha (S,V:450). On another occasion a group of brahmins from Kosala and Magadha who had arrived in Vesali, heard that the Buddha just happened to be in town and decided that the opportunity to meet him was one that was too good to miss. The Buddha had apparently given his attendant instructions that he was not to be disturbed while the brahmins were adamant that they would not leave until they got to see the famous teacher.
15. 有一次，一位比丘與佛陀在舍衛城 (Savatthi) 度過雨季。當這比丘到了迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu)，人知知道他從哪處來後，便接二連三詢問他關於佛陀的消息 (S.V: 450)。在另一次，一班憍薩羅國 (Kosala) 和摩揭陀國 (Magadha) 的婆羅門來到毘舍離 (Vesali)，聽到佛陀剛巧在城中，認為是與佛陀見面千載難逢的機會。雖然佛陀明確指示侍者不要讓人打擾自己，但這些婆羅門卻堅持要見到佛陀才肯離開。
16. Seeing this impasse, the novice Siha asked the attendant to tell the Buddha that there were three people waiting to see him. The attendant said he would not do this but he wouldn’t object if Siha did. This was done, the Buddha asked Siha to put a mat outside his residence in the shade for him to sit on while he talked to the brahmins (D. I: 151). But the Buddha couldn’t be everywhere at once and so monks and nuns would often take long journeys for the privilege of spending some time in his presence. For example once while he was residing in Catuma at least five hundred monks arrived to see him (M,I: 456).
16. 沙彌司哈 (Siha) 看到情況僵持不下，便請侍者轉告佛陀有三個人正等待與他見面。該名侍者說不會這樣做，但亦不會反對司哈自行告訴佛陀。佛陀從司哈得知事情後，便吩咐他在樹蔭下擺放一張草蓆給自己坐，然後與婆羅門傾談起來 (D. I: 151)。佛陀不能同時間在所有的地方出現，因此比丘和比丘尼經常要攀山涉水爭取與他見面的機會。例如有一次他在車頭 (Catuma) 居住，就至少五百名比丘前往探望他 (M. I: 456)。
17. However, with him moving around a lot, it was not always possible to know where he was at any one time. In the beautiful Parayana Vagga of the Sutta Nipata we read of the sixteen disciples of the ascetic Bavari setting out for northern India in the hope of meeting the Buddha. First they heard that he was at Savatthi and ‘wearing matted hair and dressed in deer skin’ they headed there. They went through Kosambi and Saketa and arrived in Savatthi only to find that he had left some time previously. They followed his route through Setavya, Kapilavatthu, Kusinara, Pava and Vesali finally catching up with him at the Pasanaka Shrine, (Barabar Hills north of Gaya) ‘and like a thirsty man going for cool water, like merchants going for profit, like a heat exhausted man going for shade, they quickly ascended the mountain’ (Sn.1014).
17. 然而，佛陀經常四處遊方，不能清楚知道他某時候身處何方。我們在《經集》 (Sutta Nipata) 的〈彼岸道品〉 (Parayana Vagga) 讀到苦行者波婆梨 (Bavari) 的十六位弟子前往印度北部，希望能找到佛陀。最初他們聽到他在舍衛城 (Savatthi)，是個「頭髮蓬鬆，身穿鹿皮」的人，他們便到了那處。他們經拘舍彌 (Kosambi) 和沙計多 (Saketa)到舍衛城，抵達時發現他已離開了一段時間。他們跟隨着他的行縱，經斯婆醯 (Setavya)、迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu)、拘尸那揭羅 (Kusinara)、巴婆 (Pava) 和毘舍離 (Vesali)，最後在石寺 (Pasanaka Shrine) (位於伽耶以北的巴拉巴山Barabar Hills) 追上他，就像「口渴的人找尋冷水、商人追求利潤和被炎熱煎熬的人找尋陰涼處一樣，他們趕快登上山」(Sn.1014)。
18. There were undoubtedly as many languages and dialects spoken in the Buddha’s India as there are today and this would have created special problems for him. Theravada tradition asserts that the Buddha spoke Pali although there is no mention in the Tripitaka of what language he spoke. Like merchants, diplomats and others whose professions meant frequent travel in different regions it is very likely that apart from his mother tongue, which would have been a dialect of Kosala, he was probably fluent in several other languages as well.
18. 在佛陀的年代，印度毫無疑問有很多的語言和方言，情況就如現今一樣，這會對他造成特別的問題。雖然《大藏經》沒有提到佛陀所操的語言，但上座部的傳統聲稱佛陀是操巴利文的。佛陀如商人、外交官和其他要經常在各地穿梭的人，很可能除了他的母語 (應是憍薩羅語的一種方言)，他或許還同時精於其他幾種語言。
19. In the Aranavibhanga Sutta he says that insisting on using one’s own dialect in an area where another is spoken can only cause confusion and conflict. ‘It has been said, “One should not stake too much on the local language...” How does one do this? In different regions they might call the same thing a pati, a patta, a vittha, a serava, a dharopa, a pona, a hana or a pisila (these are all different words for a bowl or dish). So whatever they call it in one region, one uses that word thinking, “It seems this person is referring to that object”, and one uses that word accordingly’ These are the words of someone familiar with a range of languages and dialects and who was very open and practical about language.
19. 他在《無諍分別經》(Aranavibhanga Sutta, 相當於《中阿含169經》「拘樓瘦無諍經」) 中指出，在異地堅持使用自己的語言只會導致混亂和衝突。「經文這樣說：『人不應過份注重自己的語言……』人怎樣做到這點？不同的地方人們可能稱同一樣東西為pati, patta, vittha, serava, dharopa, pona, hana或pisila (它們都解作碗或碟(缽))。因此，無論人們在一處地方怎樣稱呼它，人在用這詞語時可這樣想：『這個人好像指這樣東西』，而他也要跟隨使用這詞語。」這說話是出自熟悉多種語言和方言，對語言持開放態度，以及從現實考慮語言問題的人。
20. The Buddha was equally open about regional customs as well. Once when he found some monks spending too much time bathing and playing in the water he made a rule that they should only bathe once a month. Later some monks who had been staying in an outlying region where people found their infrequent bathing revolting (not surprisingly) reported this to the Buddha and he allowed them to bathe more often to accord with the customs of that region. Once again this is the kind of thing one would expect of the urbane well-travelled individual. Whatever the Buddha was he was not parochial and no doubt his travels made him even more urbane and open-minded.
20. 佛陀對各地的習俗同樣持開明的態度。有一次，他發現一些比丘用了太多的時間在沐浴和玩水，他因而訂了一條戒律，規定他們只能一個月(？)沐浴一次。後來，一些在邊陲地區居住比丘向佛陀報告，當地人討厭他們不常沐浴的習慣 (毫不奇怪)。佛陀於是准許他們多點沐浴，以跟隨該處地方的習俗。這樣的態度是一個溫文爾雅和的走南闖北的人應有的。無論佛陀怎樣，他都不是個眼光狹窄的人，毫無疑問遊方使他更為彬彬有禮和開通明達。
For a map showing the Buddha’s last journey see