2010年10月4日 星期一

《雜阿含235經》---獨住 1

PICT0136

如果不知道此經的翻譯脈絡,《雜阿含235經》是無法解說得通的。

《雜阿含235經》卷9:「如是我聞:一時,佛住舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園。
爾時,世尊告諸比丘:

『有師、有近住弟子,則苦獨住,無師、無近住弟子,則樂獨住。
云何有師、有近住弟子,則苦獨住?緣眼、色,生惡不善覺,貪、恚、癡俱,若彼比丘行此法者,是名有師,若於此邊住者,是名近住弟子。耳、鼻、舌、身、意亦復如是。如是有師、有近住弟子,常苦獨住。
云何無師、無近住弟子,常樂獨住?緣眼、色,生惡不善覺,貪、恚、癡俱,彼比丘不行,是名無師。不依彼住,是名無近住弟子。是名無師、無近住弟子,常樂獨住。若彼比丘無師、無近住弟子者,我說彼得梵行福。所以者何?無師、無近住弟子,比丘於我建立梵行,能正盡苦,究竟苦集。』
佛說此經已,諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。」(CBETA, T02, no. 99, p. 57, a16-b2)

經文為何說「有師、有近住弟子,則苦獨住」,有老師、有弟子在旁,應該不是獨住呀?

經文為何說「無師、無近住弟子,常樂獨住」、「比丘無師、無近住弟子者,我說彼得梵行福」,這是鼓勵離開僧團獨立生活麼?當然經文是以「離惡不善覺,貪、恚、癡」
為是否獨住的標準,但是,仍然有些疑惑。

對照巴利經文之後,才知道原文的意涵,漢譯經文的突兀是出於雙關語的翻譯困難。

Bhikkhu Bodhi《相應部尼柯耶英譯》(The Connected Discourses of the Buddha)

〔Antevasi近住(弟子)SN 35.150〕
“Bhikkhus, this holy life is lived without students and without a teacher. A bhikkhu who has students and a teacher dwells in suffering, not in comfort. A bhikkhu who has no students and no teacher dwells happily, in comfort.
(世尊宣示:)〔梵行是不與老師和弟子共住。與師和弟子共住之比丘,是苦住而非樂住。不與老師和弟子共住之比丘,則是樂住。
Anantevasikaṃ idaṃ
bhikkhave brahmacariya vusatti anacariyaka.
Antevasi 是[弟子(近住)],acariya 是[老師],samudacarati 是[煩惱],在雙關語來說,[沒有煩惱]在語音上就成為[沒有老師]﹔[不與染污共住]在語音上就成為[沒有近住(弟子)]。
Anantevasika 是[不近住,不與(染污)共住]
Ida 這個,文法上是[單數代名詞,直接受格]
Bhikkhave 比丘
Brahmacariya 梵行
Vusatti 住,字根 vas,vusita 過去分詞
此句是[住於梵行為不與染污(弟子)共住,不與煩惱(老師)共住。]
“And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu who has students and a teacher dwell in suffering, not in comfort? Here, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has seen a form with the eye, there arise in him evil unwholesome states, memories and intensions connected with the fetters. They dwell within him. Since those evil unwholesome states dwell within him, he is called ”one who has students.” They assail him. Since those evil unwholesome states assail him, he is called ”one who has a teacher.”
諸比丘,如何是『比丘與弟子(染污)共住、與老師(煩惱)共住,是苦住而非樂住』?諸比丘,此處有比丘,眼見色後,(於色)憶念、意欲結縛而生起惡不善法。此等之惡不善法住於彼之內,故云『與弟子(染污)共住』﹔此等之惡不善法令他煩惱,故云『與老師(煩惱)共住』。
“Further, when a bhikkhu has heard a sound with the ear, ……cognized a mental phenomena with the mind……he is called ”one who has a teacher.”
復次,諸比丘,耳聞聲後,鼻嗅香後,舌嚐味後,身感觸後,意識法後,(於彼)憶念、意欲結縛而生起惡不善法。此等之惡不善法住於彼之內,故云『與弟子(染污)共住』﹔此等之惡不善法令他煩惱,故云『與老師(煩惱)共住』。
“It is in this way that a bhikkhu who has students and a teacher dwells in suffering, not in comfort."
如此,是為『比丘與弟子(染污)共住、與老師(煩惱)共住,是苦住而非樂住』。
“And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu who has no students and no teacher dwell happily, in comfort? Here, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has seen a form with the eye, there do not arise in him evil unwholesome states, memories and intensions connected with the fetters. They do not dwell within him. Since those evil unwholesome states dwell within him, he is called ”one who has no students.” They do not assail him. Since those evil unwholesome states do not assail him, he is called ”one who has no teacher.”
諸比丘,如何是『比丘不與弟子(染污)共住、不與老師(煩惱)共住,是為樂住』?諸比丘,此處有比丘,眼見色後,不(於色)憶念、意欲結縛而生起惡不善法。此等之惡不善法不住於彼之內,故云『不與弟子(染污)共住』﹔此等之惡不善法不令他煩惱,故云『不與老師(煩惱)共住』。
“Further, when a bhikkhu has heard a sound with the ear, ……cognized a mental phenomena with the mind……he is called ”one who has a teacher.”
復次,諸比丘,耳聞聲後,鼻嗅香後,舌嚐味後,身感觸後,意識法後,不(於彼)憶念、意欲結縛而生起惡不善法。此等之惡不善法不住於彼之內,故云『不與弟子(染污)共住』﹔此等之惡不善法不令他煩惱,故云『不與老師(煩惱)共住』。
“It is in this way that a bhikkhu who has students and a teacher dwells in suffering, not in comfort."
如此,是為『比丘不與弟子(染污)共住、不與老師(煩惱)共住,是為樂住』。
“Bhikkhus, this holy life is lived without students and without a teacher. A bhikkhu who has students and a teacher dwells in suffering, not in comfort. A bhikkhu who has no students and no teacher dwells happily, in comfort.”
梵行是不與老師和弟子共住。與師和弟子共住之比丘,是苦住而非樂住。不與老師和弟子共住之比丘,則是樂住。

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